Application status of nanotechnology in textile industry
Generally, fibers with a diameter of 100-500 nanometers are regarded as nanofibers. Strictly speaking, nanofibers are non-woven webs of sub-micron fibers. Depending on the end use, including biodegradable polymers, they can be made into nanofiber webs by electronic spinning. Because nano-fiber products have the advantages of large specific surface area, flexibility, air permeability, microporous structure, light weight, high Young's modulus, and good functionality, there have been a few successful batch applications. Such as filters, anti-chemical toxic fabric lining, tissue scaffolds and some cutting-edge engineering applications. The Natick Military Center of the United States collaborated with government, industry, and academies to explore the practical application of nanofibers and nanoparticle materials in protective clothing. For example, the electronic spun fabric of thermoplastic elastic polyurethane has good performance; it has high elasticity and no need Further processing or treatment, the higher the strength. The current trials and development are focused on functional meltblown and electronic spinning; mix nano-grade aluminum and titanium materials to make mesh, and then mix with other methods to add reactive compounds to the fabric to obtain the decontamination performance. Donaldson has been engaged in the application research of nanofiber mesh in the biomedical field for more than 20 years. In 1981, UltraWeb's nanofiber filtration equipment was industrialized and expanded to new applications, such as nanofiber cell culture materials and smoke barrier clothing. In 2002, Donaldson established a new team to develop a three-dimensional cell culture medium that mimics the extracellular matrix (ECM) biodegradable nanomesh material in vivo. Because it is similar to the extracellular matrix, it can be used as a tissue scaffold. This type of scaffold keeps cells close to each other and grows into a three-dimensional organization. The key factors are excellent properties such as mechanical stability, biological coordination, cell proliferation and cell interaction. Recently, there is great interest in nano-scale spunmelt fibers. Hills company successfully produced 250nm diameter homogeneous melt-spun sea-island microfibers and successfully made 300nm-diameter nanotubes by the island sea forming method. With a thickness of 50-100 nanometers, Hills’ nanotube fibers can be used for defense against chemical weapons, drug release, micron filtration and micron hydraulic equipment (hydraulic devices). Japan Electric Power Company (NEC) laboratory Sumio Ijima (Sumio Ijima) successfully developed multilayer carbon nanotubes in 1991, which are characterized by light weight, high strength, electrical properties and good heat resistance. Scientists from the NanoTech Institute of the University of Texas (UTD) in Dallas, USA, and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) of Australia have joined the multi-layer carbon nanotubes in the spinning process to produce high strength, good toughness, extremely soft and conductive The heat-transfer yarn can be made into smart clothing, which can store electricity, bulletproof, temperature-adjusted, porous, and is very comfortable to wear.